Tuesday, December 13, 2016

December 12th

Warm Up:
General formula: MA = output force
                                      input force
Or ratio: MAlever = length of input arm
                               length of output arm

A lever used to lift a heavy box has an input arm of 4 meters and an output arm of 0.8 meters. What is the mechanical advantage of the lever?

Quick Reviews completed today:

A. Page 214 - Calculating Power (1-2)
B. Page 215 - Section Review Questions (1-9)
C. Circle Map: Explain the concept machines and provide examples

Homework: Complete simple machine notes on BLOG
Simple Machines Project given: Due December 20th
Create a game that requires the players to identify the six types of simple machines.
Design an experiment for one type of simple machine and have one of your classmates perform it.
Visit Edheads.org and complete the activities recording the type of simple machine you decide is represented.
Construct a Rube Goldberg device using at least 4 different types of simple machines and at least 12 steps.
Draw an example of each of the three lever classes.  Label the effort, resistance and fulcrum on each lever.  Tell how each type of lever is used.
Invent a compound machine that contains at least three simple machines.
Explain how each type of simple machine makes a job easier.  Use specific examples for each type of simple machine.
Solve the mechanical advantage problems for the different types of simple machines.
Use the simple machine cards and classify them into the six types of simple machines. 

December 11th

Warm Up:  ______________ is the ratio of the output force to the input force.

Today's Focus:
Completion of Friday's Stations:


Example of Frayer's Model:

Words to use:

work input
work output
mechanical advantage
mechanical efficiency

Tuesday, December 6, 2016

December 5th - 6th

Monday Warm Up:
An object rest remains at rest, and an object in motion remains in motion at constant speed and in a straight line unless acted on by an unbalanced force. Which law is this?

Today's Focus:

Introduction to Machines via Activity (C'mon Lever A Little)

Power Point Notes on Work and Power:

Copy Only Bold Print Information into ISN:

Work is done when a net force acts on an object and the object moves in the direction of the net force.
Work is the product of the force on an object and the distance through which the object is moved:  the quantity force × distance
If the force is constant and the motion takes place in a straight line in the direction of the force, the work done on an object by a net force is the product of the force and the distance through which the object is moved.
  work = net force × distance
  W = Fd

Work is done in lifting the barbell. If the barbell could be lifted twice as high, the weight lifter would have to do twice as much work.
While the weight lifter is holding a barbell over his head, he may get really tired, but he does no work on the barbell.
Work may be done on the muscles by stretching and squeezing them, but this work is not done on the barbell.
When the weight lifter raises the barbell, he is doing work on it

Work and Force:
Some work is done against another force.
An archer stretches her bowstring, doing work against the elastic forces of the bow.
When the ram of a pile driver is raised, work is required to raise the ram against the force of gravity.
When you do push-ups, you do work against your own weight.

Work and Speed:
Some work is done to change the speed of an object.
Bringing an automobile up to speed or in slowing it down involves work.
In both categories, work involves a transfer of energy between something and its surroundings

Work Units:
The unit of measurement for work combines a unit of force, N, with a unit of distance, m.
The unit of work is the newton-meter (Nm), also called the joule.
One joule (J) of work is done when a force of 1 N is exerted over a distance of 1 m (lifting an apple over your head).
Larger units are required to describe greater work.
Kilojoules (kJ) are thousands of joules. The weight lifter does work on the order of kilojoules.
Megajoules (MJ) are millions of joules. To stop a loaded truck going at 100 km/h takes megajoules of work.

Practice Problem:
Suppose that you apply a 60-N horizontal force to a 32-kg package, which pushes it 4 meters across a mailroom floor. How much work do you do on the package?

Suppose that you apply a 60-N horizontal force to a 32-kg package, which pushes it 4 meters across a mailroom floor. How much work do you do on the package?
W = Fd = 60 N × 4 m = 240 J
Apply the work equation to determine the amount of work done by the applied force in each of the three situations described below:  DIAGRAM A ONLY 

Diagram A Answer:
  W = (100 N) * (5 m) = 500 J

Diagram B Answer:
  W = cos(30 degrees) *(100 N) * (5 m) = 433 J

Diagram C Answer:
W = (147 N) * (5 m) = 735 J

Power equals the amount of work done divided by the time interval during which the work is done.
When carrying a load up some stairs, you do the same amount of work whether you walk or run up the stairs.
Power is the rate at which work is done.
Power = work done
              time interval

High Power Engine:
A high-power engine does work rapidly.
An engine that delivers twice the power of another engine does not necessarily produce twice as much work or go twice as fast.
Twice the power means the engine can do twice the work in the same amount of time or the same amount of work in half the time.
A powerful engine can get an automobile up to a given speed in less time than a less powerful engine can.

Power Units:

The unit of power is the joule per second, also known as the watt.
One watt (W) of power is expended when one joule of work is done in one second.
One kilowatt (kW) equals 1000 watts.
One megawatt (MW) equals one million watts.
In the United States, we customarily rate engines in units of horsepower and electricity in kilowatts, but either may be used.
In the metric system of units, automobiles are rated in kilowatts. One horsepower (hp) is the same as 0.75 kW, so an engine rated at 134 hp is a 100-kW engine.
If a forklift is replaced with a new forklift that has twice the power, how much greater a load can it lift in the same amount of time? If it lifts the same load, how much faster can it operate?
The forklift that delivers twice the power will lift twice the load in the same time, or the same load in half the time.

Tuesday Warm Up:
The tendency of an object to resist being moved or, if the object is moving, to resist change in speed, or direction until an outside force acts on the object is:
Give an example.

Today's Focus:
Motion Gallery Walk Review (Distance Time Graphs)
Completion of Notes on Work and Power.
Homework: Work and Power Reading Handout